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        粮食安全要破解“四多怪圈”,中央要求“拓展供给来源,提高供给质量”

        2019年09月10日 17:16:03字号:T|T

            尽管中国粮食总产量连续多年稳定在1.2万亿斤以上,但对于粮食安全,中央始终没有放松这根弦。

            9月9日,中央全面深化改革委员会第十次会议强调,要以保障国家粮食安全为底线,坚持数量质量并重,实施分品种保障,增加供给总量,优化供给结构,拓展供给来源,提高供给质量,加强农产品储备和加工业发展调控,健全农业支持保护制度,努力构建科学合理、安全高效的重要农产品供给保障体系。

            此前,中国的粮食安全领域曾面临“四多怪圈”。这“四多”,根据中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所研究员成升魁、谢高地撰写的文章,指的是“产量多、进口多、库存多、浪费多”。由于种种复杂原因,“四多怪圈”最后导致的结果就是,新粮入库、“洋粮”入市、陈粮入口。

            这是此次会议强调“坚持数量质量并重,实施分品种保障,增加供给总量,优化供给结构,拓展供给来源,提高供给质量”的背景。

            布瑞克·农产品集购网研究总监林国发对第一财经记者表示,由于我国的耕地和水资源无法满足我国对农产品的全部需求,适度进口部分粮食可以缓解国内资源和环境的压力,这也是必然的选择。国家粮食安全是一个彼此依赖、相互依存的关系。但问题的关键在于,国际粮食市场是否稳定,贸易规则是否有效,以及我国能否保持获取国际粮食资源的强大能力。

            比如大豆进口方面,如果过度依赖一个地区的大豆进口,容易因天气或者其他外部因素导致供应不稳定,于是,中国开始积极拓宽其他大豆进口来源,在从巴西、乌拉圭、阿根廷等南美国家进口的同时,也开始从乌克兰、俄罗斯,甚至非洲进口大豆来解决大豆进口来源过于集中的问题。另外,也积极调整国内大豆种植结构,加大东北、华北地区大豆种植面积。

            此外,国内爆发的非洲猪瘟,导致我国猪肉减产,对外依存度开始增加。再加上中美经贸问题,中国拓宽了南美多国的猪肉进口。比如,近期中国从阿根廷、智利等南美国家进口猪肉,后期还可能从澳大利亚等国家进口猪肉,减少进口猪肉过度依赖欧盟和美国的情况。在拓宽猪肉进口来源同时,政府积极出台政策,加快生猪产能恢复,不断提升国内猪肉供应量。

            林国发称,农产品的自有特点,使得安全高效的重要农产品供给保障体系需要做好规划,建立合适的储备政策,有利于减轻疫情或者灾害对具体农产品供应保障的影响。另外,积极实施农产品间的替代供应,也可以有效缓解特殊情况的供应保障问题。比如,当期生猪产能下降显著,短期产能难有效恢复,积极发展肉禽、蛋禽和水产业可以有效减轻猪肉供应缺口问题。

            目前,我国粮食供求矛盾已由数量不足转变为结构性矛盾,保障粮食安全的重心已从注重总量规模转向数量、质量并重。在全面建成小康社会进入决胜阶段的背景下,优化粮食种植结构,实现优质优价,满足居民营养健康多元化的消费需求,已成为保障粮食安全的重要使命。

            2017年,财政部、国家粮食和物资储备局在全国启动了流通领域的“优质粮食工程”。“优质粮食工程”的实施要以“为耕者谋利,为食者造福”、推进精准扶贫、保障国家粮食安全为目标。一方面,要有利于提高绿色优质粮油产品供给,将提升收获粮食的优质品率、优质优价收购量和粮油加工产品的优质品率等作为重要考核指标;另一方面,要有利于提高种粮农民利益,将带动农民增收作为重要考核指标。

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