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        2018年中国森林火灾发生情况及森林防火管理措施[图]

        2019年07月17日 13:43:23字号:T|T

            森林在净化空气和调节气候等方面具有非常重要的意义,通过加强对森林资源的管理和保护,能够在很大程度上提高我国林业部门工作的重要性,同时对我国良好的生态环境的营造具有重要的意义。

        森林资源管护的意义

        资料来源:公开资料整理

            中国是森林资源大国,是世界森林的重要组分,这使得我国成为遭遇森林火灾风险最高、防火任务最重的国家之一,森林草原火灾发生突然、蔓延迅速、危害极大、损失严重,是世界各国防范与应对自然灾害的重中之重与难中之难,森林火灾与一般突发事件相区别的特点:

        森林火灾的特点

        资料来源:公开资料整理

            2009-2018年我国森林火灾发生频度整体呈下降趋势,2011年以后我国的森林火灾特征存在一个显著的转折,即由重转轻。但是在2017年全国森林火灾发生次数出现了一次小反弹,随后又恢复低值。2018年我国共发生森林火灾2478起,较2009年降低了6381起,森林火灾次数大幅下降。

        2009-2018年我国森林火灾发生次数

        资料来源:国家统计局

            智研咨询发布的《2019-2025年中国森林防火行业市场运营模式分析及发展趋势预测研究报告》数据显示:2018年,全国共发生森林火灾2478起,同比2017年3223起下降23.11%,其中:一般森林火灾1579起、较大森林火灾894起、重大森林火灾3起、特大森林火灾2起。

        2009-2018年不同程度森林火灾发生情况

        资料来源:国家统计局

            受灾森林面积与火灾发生次数变化规律较一致,均在2011年以后呈现明显下降趋势,随着森林火灾发生次数的减少,2018年我国受灾森林面积下降至16309公顷,较2009年减少29846.9公顷。

        2009-2018年中国受灾森林面积走势

        资料来源:国家统计局

            我国森林火灾频发,给社会经济造成了严重损失,直接威胁到林业可持续发展和国家生态安全,全国森林火灾受伤死亡人数总体呈下降趋势,2014年是2009-2018年期间森林火灾造成伤亡人数最多的1年,伤亡人数共计112人,2018年森林火灾伤亡人数为39人,同比2017年下降15.22%。

        2009-2018年中国森林火灾伤亡人数走势

        资料来源:国家统计局

            森林火灾所带来的危害极大,不仅破坏了自然环境,而且会威胁人们的生命。若森林里面发生火灾,则很难及时补救,木材可燃性高、燃点低,在发生火灾之后会迅速全方位蔓延,几秒钟可能会扩大成几百米,甚至千米级别的火海,因而注重森林防火管理具有重要意义。做好森林防火工作是确保我国森林资源持续健康发展、国家木材及生态安全的重要保证,是建设社会主义“生态文明”及“美丽中国”国家战略的重要保障。

        森林防火管理的切实措施

        资料来源:公开资料整理 

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