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        李志高 :预防乳腺癌从改变不良生活方式做起

        2019年09月17日 16:07:31字号:T|T

            由于生活方式的改变和节奏的加快,乳腺疾病已成为威胁女性健康的危险因素。那么,哪些人是乳腺癌的高发人群,如何才能有效降低乳腺癌的发生率?黑龙江省医师协会乳腺癌专业委员会主任委员、哈尔滨医科大学附属肿瘤医院乳腺外科二病区主任李志高为你权威解答。

            精彩观点

            六种人是乳腺癌的高发人群

            在多年的临床实践中,我们发现有六种人是乳腺癌的高发人群。

            首先,如果在母亲、姐妹这样的直系亲属中有得乳腺癌的,那么她的发病率要比别人高1至2倍。

            其次,月经初潮小于13岁或者绝经超过55岁的女性,患乳腺癌的几率会较高。如果得了良性肿瘤,比如纤维瘤转化为恶性肿瘤的可能性也要高一些。双乳一侧得了乳腺癌,对侧乳腺癌的发病率也会增高。

            还有长期服用利血平类降压药的患者,患乳腺癌的几率也会增大。射线、电离辐射等也是乳腺癌的诱发因素之一。

            此外,跟生活方式有关,过度肥胖也是乳腺癌的一个高危因素。

            乳腺癌高危人群要进行定期筛查

            对于乳腺癌高危人群来说,定期筛查是非常必要的,一定要看专科医生,定期做彩超或钼靶检查。

            实际上,彩超是一个无创检查,钼靶可能有点射线,但是这点射线对乳腺影响不大。通过检查,百分之八九十的乳腺癌都能够鉴别出来,所以高危人群应该定期去看专科医生。

            一般情况下,彩超半年做一次,钼靶一到两年做一次。因为我们国家的患者普遍比欧美国家年轻一些,我一般建议女性从40岁开始做检查,这样能够早发现早治疗,使诊疗达到一个较好的水平。

            同时,我要说的是,尽管一些人有高危因素,可能发病率比别人高一些,但这个概率还不及欧美国家正常的发病率,所以大可不必谈癌色变。

            只需要记住一点,一定要定期去看医生、定期去做检查,这样对女性健康是非常有益的。

            母乳喂养可有效降低乳腺癌发生率

            科学表明,母乳喂养是新手妈妈们预防乳腺疾病的一个自然手段。我们知道当下由于工作节奏快,一些忙碌的新手妈妈不得已放弃了母乳喂养,还有一些妈妈出于自身美丽的考虑,给宝宝吃上了奶粉。

            在这里,我提个建议,母乳喂养不仅对孩子的健康发育有好处,而且能降低母亲患乳腺癌的几率。所以,尽管哺乳异常辛苦,需要新手妈妈付出很多,但这样“一举两得”的好事还是要坚持下来。时间不用太长,哺乳一年左右足够。

            要以阳光心态面对乳腺癌

            周围的亲戚朋友或同事得知患了乳腺癌后,一开始都有要崩溃的感觉。她们普遍担心这个病难以治愈,实际上乳腺癌是综合治疗效果较好的实体瘤。

            所以,患者要用积极的心态去配合医生的治疗,要有一定的依从性,该化疗的时候就化疗,该手术的时候手术,该吃药的时候不能含糊。

            其中,我一直强调病人的心态很重要,因为乳腺癌的发生大部分和精神压力、不良的生活方式有关。如果你总是很紧张的话,不仅不利于治疗,还可能导致其他疾病的发生。

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